• HPLC Solvent Properties & Solvent Miscibility Table

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  • Physical Constants
    Quantity Symbol Traditional Units SI Units
    Acceleration of gravity g 980.6 cm/s 9.806 m/s
    Atomic mass unit
    (1/12th of the mass of 12C atom)
    amu 1.6606 X 10-24 g 1.6606 X 10-27 kg
    Avogadro constant Na 6.022 X 1023 particles/mol 6.022 X 1023 particles/mol
    Boltzmann constant k 1.3807 X10-16 erg/K 1.3807 X 10-23 J/K
    Charge-to-mass ratio of electron e/m 1.7588 X 108 Coulomb/g 1.7588 X 1011 C/kg
    Electronic charge e 1.60219 X 10-19 Coulomb 4.8033 X 10-19 esu 1.60219 X 10-19 C
    Faraday constant F 96,487 C·eq-1 96,487 C·mol-1
    Gas constant R 1.987 cal/mol. K 8.3145 kPa dm3/ mol .K 8.3145 J/ mol.K
    Molar volume (STP) Vm 22.710981 L/mol 22.710981 X 10-3 m3/mol 22.710981 dm3/ mol
    Neutron rest mass mn 1.67495 X 10-24 g 1.008665 u 1.67495 X 10-27 kg
    Proton rest mass mp 1.6726 X 10-24 g 1.007277 u 1.6726 X 10-27 kg
    Electron rest mass me 9.10952 X 10-28 g 9.10952 X 10-31 kg
    Speed of light (in vacuum) c 2.9979 X 10-10 cm/s 2.9979 X 108 m/s
    Plank constant h 6.6262 X 10-27 ergs 6.6262 X 10-34 J.s
  • Basic SI Units
    Physical Dimension Symbol for Quantity SI Symbol Name of SI Units
    Length l m meter
    Mass m kg kilogram
    Time t s second
    Electric current I A ampere
    Thermodynamic temperature T K Kelvin
    Amount of substance n Mole mole
    Luminous intensity Iv cd candela
  • Prefix used in SI System
    Multiple Prefix Symbol
    10-15 Femto f
    10-12 Pico p
    10-9 Nano n
    10-6 Micro µ
    10-3 Milli m
    10-2 Centi c
    10-1 Deci d
    10 Deca da
    102 Hecta h
    103 Kilo k
    106 Mega M
    109 Giga G
    1012 Tera T
    1015 Peta P
  • Acid-Base Indicator Selection
    Name pH range Color Change
    Thymol Blue 1.2-2.8 Red to Yellow
    Bromophenol Blue 3.0-4.6 Yellow to Blue
    Congo Red 3.0-5.0 Blue to Red
    Bromophenol Blue 3.0-4.5 Yellow to Blue
    Methyl Orange 3.2-4.2 Red to Yellow/Orange
    Bromocresol Green 3.8-5.4 Yellow to Blue
    Methyl Red 4.2-6.2 Pink to Yellow
    Methyl Red Hydrochloride 4.2-6.2 Pink to Yellow
    Rosolic Acid 5.0-8.0 Mow to Red
    Bromocresol Purple 5.2-6.8 Yellow to Purple
    Alizarin 5.8-7.2 Yellow to Red
    Bromothymol Blue 6.0-7.6 Yellow to Blue
    m-Nitrophenol 6.8-8.6 Colorless to Yellow
    Phenol Red 6.8-8.2 Yellow to Red
    Cresol Red 7.0-8.8 Yellow to Violet Red
    Thymol Blue 8.0-9.2 Yellow to Blue
    Phenolphthalein 8.0-10.0 Colorless to Red
    Thymolphthalein 8.8-10.5 Colorless to Blue
    Alizarin 1.0-13.0 Red to Purple
    Acid Fuchsin 12.0-14.0 Red to Colorless
  • Preparation of Standard Solution
    Specific Gravity (20°C) Molarity (M) Qualtity required in ml to make 1 liter 1 Molar Solution Normality (N) Quantity required in ml to make 1 liter 1 Normal Solution
    Glacial Acetic acid 1.05 17.4 57.5 17.4 57.5
    Ammonia 30% 0.89 14.5 69 14.5 69
    Ammonia 25% 0.91 13.4 74.6 13.4 74.6
    Hydrochloric acid 36% 1.18 11.7 85.8 11.7 85.8
    Hydrofluoric acid 40% 1.13 22.6 44.2 22.6 44.2
    Hydrofluoric acid 48% 1.15 28.9 34.5 28.9 34.5
    Nitric acid 70% 1.42 15.8 63.3 15.8 63.3
    Perchloric acid 60% 1.54 9.2 108.7 9.2 108.7
    Perchloric acid 70% 1.67 11.6 86.2 11.6 86.2
    Sulphuric acid 98% 1.84 18 53.1 36 26.2
    Phosphoric acid 85% 1.7 15.2 65.8 45.6 21.9